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J. Clin. Invest., 2009; 119(9):2564–2576.

CpG-containing immunostimulatory DNA sequences elicit TNF-α–dependent toxicity in rodents but not in humans.

John D. Campbell, Yan Cho, Martyn L. Foster, Holger Kanzler, Melissa A. Kachura, Jeremy A. Lum, Marianne J. Ratcliffe, Atul Sathe, Andrew J. Leishman, Ash Bahl, Mark McHale, Robert L. Coffman and Edith M. Hessel.


Immunity, 2011; 34(3):375-384.

Selective utilization of Toll-like receptor and MyD88 signaling in B cells for enhancement of the antiviral germinal center response.

Hou B, Saudan P, Ott G, Wheeler ML, Ji M, Kuzmich L, Lee LM, Coffman RL, Bachmann MF, DeFranco AL.


J. Immunol., 2005; 174:5193–5200.

Inhibitors of TLR-9 Act on Multiple Cell Subsets in Mouse and Man In Vitro and Prevent Death In Vivo from Systemic Inflammation.

Omar Duramad, Karen L. Fearon, Bonnie Chang, Jean H. Chan, Josh Gregorio, Robert L. Coffman, and Franck J. Barrat.


J. Exp. Med., 2005; 202(8):1131-1139.

Nucelic acids of mammalian origin can act as endogenous ligands for Toll-like receptors and may promote systemic lupus erythematosus.

Franck J. Barrat, Thea Meeker, Josh Gregorio, Jean H. Chan, Satoshi Uematsu, Shizuo Akira, Bonnie Chang, Omar Duramad, and Robert L. Coffman.


Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 2007; 82(3):497-508.

Negative regulation of TLR9-mediated IFN-{alpha} induction by a small-molecule, synthetic TLR7 ligand.

Marshall JD, Heeke DS, Gesner ML, Livingston B, Van Nest G.


Blood, 2007; 110:2907-2915.

Interferon-{alpha} promotes abnormal vasculogenesis in lupus: a potential pathway for premature atherosclerosis.

Denny M.F., Thacker S., Mehta H., Somers E.C., Dodick T., Barrat F.J., McCune W.J. and Kaplan M.J.


Eur. J. Immunol., 2007; 37(12):3582-6.

Treatment of lupus-prone mice with a dual inhibitor of TLR7 and TLR9 leads to reduction of autoantibody production and amelioration of disease symptoms.

Franck J. Barrat, Thea Meeker, Jean H. Chan, Cristiana Guiducci and Robert L. Coffman.


Immunological Reviews, 2008; 223:271-283.

Development of TLR inhibitors for the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

Frank J. Barrat and Robert L. Coffman.


Immunology Letters, 2008; 121:61–73.

Pathogenic anti-DNA antibodies modulate gene expression in mesangial cells: Involvement of HMGB1 in anti-DNA antibody-induced renal injury.

Xiaoping Qing, Milena Pitashny, David B. Thomas, Franck J. Barrat, Mark P. Hogarth, Chaim Putterman.


J. Intern. Med., 2008; 265:43-57.

Signalling pathways leading to IFN-a production in human PDC and the possible use of agonists or antagonists of TLR-7 and TLR-9 in clinical indications (Review).

Guiducci C, Coffman RL, Barrat FJ (Dynavax Technologies Corporation, Berkeley, CA USA).